Muscle oxygenation maintained during repeated-sprints despite inspiratory muscle loading

Autoři: Ramón F. Rodriguez aff001;  Nathan E. Townsend aff002;  Robert J. Aughey aff001;  François Billaut aff001
Působiště autorů: Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia aff001;  Aspetar, Doha, Qatar aff002;  Department of kinesiology, University Laval, Quebec, Canada aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222487


A high work of breathing can compromise limb oxygen delivery during sustained high-intensity exercise. However, it is unclear if the same is true for intermittent sprint exercise. This project examined the effect of adding an inspiratory load on locomotor muscle tissue reoxygenation during repeated-sprint exercise. Ten healthy males completed three experiment sessions of ten 10-s sprints, separated by 30-s of passive rest on a cycle ergometer. The first two sessions were “all-out’ efforts performed without (CTRL) or with inspiratory loading (INSP) in a randomised and counterbalanced order. The third experiment session (MATCH) consisted of ten 10-s work-matched intervals. Tissue saturation index (TSI) and deoxy-haemoglobin (HHb) of the vastus lateralis and sixth intercostal space was monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy. Vastus lateralis reoxygenation (ΔReoxy) was calculated as the difference from peak HHb (sprint) to nadir HHb (recovery). Total mechanical work completed was similar between INSP and CTRL (effect size: -0.18, 90% confidence limit ±0.43), and differences in vastus lateralis TSI during the sprint (-0.01 ±0.33) and recovery (-0.08 ±0.50) phases were unclear. There was also no meaningful difference in ΔReoxy (0.21 ±0.37). Intercostal HHb was higher in the INSP session compared to CTRL (0.42 ±0.34), whilst the difference was unclear for TSI (-0.01 ±0.33). During MATCH exercise, differences in vastus lateralis TSI were unclear compared to INSP for both sprint (0.10 ±0.30) and recovery (-0.09 ±0.48) phases, and there was no meaningful difference in ΔReoxy (-0.25 ±0.55). Intercostal TSI was higher during MATCH compared to INSP (0.95 ±0.53), whereas HHb was lower (-1.09 ±0.33). The lack of difference in ΔReoxy between INSP and CTRL suggests that for intermittent sprint exercise, the metabolic O2 demands of both the respiratory and locomotor muscles can be met. Additionally, the similarity of the MATCH suggests that ΔReoxy was maximal in all exercise conditions.

Klíčová slova:

Medicine and health sciences – Public and occupational health – Physical activity – Physical fitness – Respiration – Breathing – Muscle tissue – Muscles – Cardiac muscles – Biology and life sciences – Sports science – Sports and exercise medicine – Exercise – Physiology – Physiological processes – Anatomy – Biological tissue – Musculoskeletal system – Body limbs – Research and analysis methods – Spectrum analysis techniques – Infrared spectroscopy – Near-infrared spectroscopy – Physical sciences – Chemistry – Chemical elements – Oxygen


1. Racinais S, Bishop DJ, Denis R, Lattier G, Mendez-Villaneuva A, Perrey S. Muscle deoxygenation and neural drive to the muscle during repeated sprint cycling. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2007;39(2):268–74. Epub 2007/02/06. doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000251775.46460.cb 17277590.

2. Gaitanos GC, Williams C, Boobis LH, Brooks S. Human muscle metabolism during intermittent maximal exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1993;75(2):712–9. Epub 1993/08/01. doi: 10.1152/jappl.1993.75.2.712 8226473.

3. Mendez-Villanueva A, Edge J, Suriano R, Hamer P, Bishop DJ. The recovery of repeated-sprint exercise is associated with PCr resynthesis, while muscle pH and EMG amplitude remain depressed. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(12):e51977. Epub 2013/01/04. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051977 23284836; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3524088.

4. Hureau TJ, Ducrocq GP, Blain GM. Peripheral and Central Fatigue Development during All-Out Repeated Cycling Sprints. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2016;48(3):391–401. Epub 2015/10/27. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000800 26496420.

5. Parolin ML, Chesley A, Matsos MP, Spriet LL, Jones NL, Heigenhauser GJF. Regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase and PDH during maximal intermittent exercise. Am J Physiol. 1999;277(5):E890–900. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.1999.277.5.E890 WOS:000083598700016. 10567017

6. Harris RC, Edwards RH, Hultman E, Nordesjö LO, Nylind B, Sahlin K. The time course of phosphorylcreatine resynthesis during recovery of the quadriceps muscle in man. Pflugers Archiv: European journal of physiology. 1976;367(2):137–42. doi: 10.1007/bf00585149 1034909

7. Sahlin K, Harris RC, Hultman E. Resynthesis of creatine phosphate in human muscle after exercise in relation to intramuscular pH and availability of oxygen. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. 1979;39(6):551–8. Epub 1979/10/01. doi: 10.3109/00365517909108833 43580.

8. De Blasi RA, Cope M, Elwell C, Safoue F, Ferrari M. Noninvasive measurement of human forearm oxygen consumption by near infrared spectroscopy. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology. 1993;67(1):20–5. doi: 10.1007/bf00377698 8375359.

9. Grassi B, Pogliaghi S, Rampichini S, Quaresima V, Ferrari M, Marconi C, et al. Muscle oxygenation and pulmonary gas exchange kinetics during cycling exercise on-transitions in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2003;95(1):149–58. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00695.2002 12611769

10. DeLorey DS, Kowalchuk JM, Paterson DH. Relationship between pulmonary O2 uptake kinetics and muscle deoxygenation during moderate-intensity exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2003;95(1):113–20. Epub 2003/04/08. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00956.2002 12679363.

11. Buchheit M, Cormie P, Abbiss CR, Ahmaidi S, Nosaka KK, Laursen PB. Muscle deoxygenation during repeated sprint running: Effect of active vs. passive recovery. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 2009;30(6):418–25. Epub 2009/05/14. doi: 10.1055/s-0028-1105933 19437381.

12. Smith KJ, Billaut F. Influence of cerebral and muscle oxygenation on repeated-sprint ability. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2010;109(5):989–99. Epub 2010/04/01. doi: 10.1007/s00421-010-1444-4 20354718.

13. Billaut F, Buchheit M. Repeated-sprint performance and vastus lateralis oxygenation: Effect of limited O2 availability. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. 2013;23(3):185–93. Epub 2013/02/01. doi: 10.1111/sms.12052 23362832.

14. Buchheit M, Ufland P. Effect of endurance training on performance and muscle reoxygenation rate during repeated-sprint running. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2011;111(2):293–301. Epub 2010/09/28. doi: 10.1007/s00421-010-1654-9 20872150.

15. Jones B, Hamilton DK, Cooper CE. Muscle oxygen changes following sprint interval cycling training in elite field hockey players. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(3):e0120338. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120338 25807517

16. Aaron EA, Seow KC, Johnson BD, Dempsey JA. Oxygen cost of exercise hyperpnea: implications for performance. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1992;72(5):1818–25. Epub 1992/05/01. doi: 10.1152/jappl.1992.72.5.1818 1601791.

17. Dempsey JA, Romer L, Rodman J, Miller J, Smith C. Consequences of exercise-induced respiratory muscle work. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology. 2006;151(2–3):242–50. Epub 2006/04/18. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2005.12.015 16616716.

18. Harms CA, Babcock MA, McClaran SR, Pegelow DF, Nickele GA, Nelson WB, et al. Respiratory muscle work compromises leg blood flow during maximal exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1997;82(5):1573–83. Epub 1997/05/01. doi: 10.1152/jappl.1997.82.5.1573 9134907.

19. Harms CA, Wetter TJ, McClaran SR, Pegelow DF, Nickele GA, Nelson WB, et al. Effects of respiratory muscle work on cardiac output and its distribution during maximal exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1998;85(2):609–18. doi: 10.1152/jappl.1998.85.2.609 9688739

20. Wetter TJ, Harms CA, Nelson WB, Pegelow DF, Dempsey JA. Influence of respiratory muscle work on VO2 and leg blood flow during submaximal exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1999;87(2):643–51. Epub 1999/08/13. doi: 10.1152/jappl.1999.87.2.643 10444624.

21. Rodriguez RF, Townsend NE, Aughey RJ, Billaut F. Influence of averaging method on muscle deoxygenation interpretation during repeated‐sprint exercise. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. 2018;28(11):2263–71. Epub 2018/06/09. doi: 10.1111/sms.13238 29883534.

22. Rodriguez RF, Townsend NE, Aughey RJ, Billaut F. Respiratory Muscle Oxygenation is not impacted by Hypoxia during Repeated-sprint Exercise. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology. 2019;260:114–21. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2018.11.006 30453086.

23. Matsuura R, Arimitsu T, Yunoki T, Kimura T, Yamanaka R, Yano T. Effects of heat exposure in the absence of hyperthermia on power output during repeated cycling sprints. Biology of Sport. 2015;32(1):15–20. doi: 10.5604/20831862.1125286 25729145; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4314599.

24. Turner LA, Tecklenburg-Lund S, Chapman RF, Stager JM, Duke JW, Mickleborough TD. Inspiratory loading and limb locomotor and respiratory muscle deoxygenation during cycling exercise. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology. 2013;185(3):506–14. Epub 2012/12/12. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2012.11.018 23228896.

25. Nielsen HB, Boesen M, Secher NH. Near-infrared spectroscopy determined brain and muscle oxygenation during exercise with normal and resistive breathing. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. 2001;171(1):63–70. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-201X.2001.00782.x 11350264.

26. Lamarra N, Whipp BJ, Ward SA, Wasserman K. Effect of interbreath fluctuations on characterizing exercise gas exchange kinetics. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1987;62(5):2003–12. Epub 1987/05/01. doi: 10.1152/jappl.1987.62.5.2003 3110126.

27. Rossiter HB, Howe FA, Ward SA, Kowalchuk JM, Griffiths JR, Whipp BJ. Intersample fluctuations in phosphocreatine concentration determined by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and parameter estimation of metabolic responses to exercise in humans. The Journal of Physiology. 2000;528 Pt 2:359–69. Epub 2000/10/18. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7793.2000.t01-1-00359.x 11034625; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2270138.

28. Witt JD, Guenette JA, Rupert JL, McKenzie DC, Sheel AW. Inspiratory muscle training attenuates the human respiratory muscle metaboreflex. The Journal of Physiology. 2007;584(3):1019–28. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2007.140855 17855758

29. Takaishi T, Sugiura T, Katayama K, Sato Y, Shima N, Yamamoto T, et al. Changes in blood volume and oxygenation level in a working muscle during a crank cycle. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2002;34(3):520–8. Epub 2002/03/07. doi: 10.1097/00005768-200203000-00020 11880818.

30. Perrey S, Ferrari M. Muscle Oximetry in Sports Science: A Systematic Review. Sports Medicine. 2018;48(3):597–616. Epub 2017/11/28. doi: 10.1007/s40279-017-0820-1 29177977.

31. Wolf M, Ferrari M, Quaresima V. Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications. Journal of biomedical optics. 2007;12(6):062104. Epub 2008/01/01. doi: 10.1117/1.2804899 18163807.

32. Kovacsova Z, Bale G, Mitra S, de Roever I, Meek J, Robertson N, et al. Investigation of Confounding Factors in Measuring Tissue Saturation with NIRS Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 2018;1072:307–12. Epub 2018/09/05. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-91287-5_49 30178363; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6142855.

33. Niemeijer VM, Jansen JP, van Dijk T, Spee RF, Meijer EJ, Kemps HM, et al. The influence of adipose tissue on spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy derived skeletal muscle oxygenation: the extent of the problem. Physiological measurement. 2017;38(3):539–54. Epub 2017/02/06. doi: 10.1088/1361-6579/aa5dd5 28151429.

34. Messere A, Roatta S. Influence of cutaneous and muscular circulation on spatially resolved versus standard Beer-Lambert near-infrared spectroscopy. Physiological Reports. 2013;1(7):e00179. Epub 2014/04/20. doi: 10.1002/phy2.179 24744858; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3970749.

35. Hopkins WG. Spreadsheets for analysis of controlled trials, with adjustment for a subject characteristic. Sportscience. 2006;10:46–50.

36. Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciencies: Routledge; 1988.

37. Hopkins WG, Marshall SW, Batterham AM, Hanin J. Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2009;41(1):3–13. Epub 2008/12/19. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818cb278 19092709.

38. Turner LA, Tecklenburg-Lund SL, Chapman R, Shei RJ, Wilhite DP, Mickleborough T. The Effect of Inspiratory Muscle Training on Respiratory and Limb Locomotor Muscle Deoxygenation During Exercise with Resistive Inspiratory Loading. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 2016;(EFirst). Epub 18.05.2016. doi: 10.1055/s-0042-104198 27191210

39. Sheel AW, Derchak PA, Morgan BJ, Pegelow DF, Jacques AJ, Dempsey JA. Fatiguing inspiratory muscle work causes reflex reduction in resting leg blood flow in humans. The Journal of Physiology. 2001;537(Pt 1):277–89. Epub 2001/11/17. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7793.2001.0277k.x 11711580; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2278925.

40. Hill JM. Discharge of group IV phrenic afferent fibers increases during diaphragmatic fatigue. Brain Research. 2000;856(1–2):240–4. doi: 10.1016/s0006-8993(99)02366-5 10677632.

41. St Croix CM, Morgan BJ, Wetter TJ, Dempsey JA. Fatiguing inspiratory muscle work causes reflex sympathetic activation in humans. The Journal of Physiology. 2000;529(2):493–504. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7793.2000.00493.x 11101657

42. Esaki K, Hamaoka T, Radegran G, Boushel R, Hansen J, Katsumura T, et al. Association between regional quadriceps oxygenation and blood oxygen saturation during normoxic one-legged dynamic knee extension. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2005;95(4):361–70. Epub 2005/08/13. doi: 10.1007/s00421-005-0008-5 16096839.

43. Legrand R, Ahmaidi S, Moalla W, Chocquet D, Marles A, Prieur F, et al. O2 arterial desaturation in endurance athletes increases muscle deoxygenation. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2005;37(5):782–8. Epub 2005/05/05. doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000161806.47058.40 15870632.

44. Forster HV, Haouzi P, Dempsey JA. Control of breathing during exercise. Comprehensive Physiology. 2012;2(1):743–77. Epub 2012/01/01. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c100045 23728984.

45. Whipp BJ, Ward SA. Determinants and control of breathing during muscular exercise. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 1998;32(3):199–211. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.32.3.199 PMC1756098. 9773167

46. Dempsey JA, Wagner PD. Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1999;87(6):1997–2006. doi: 10.1152/jappl.1999.87.6.1997 10601141

47. Romer LM, Haverkamp HC, Lovering AT, Pegelow DF, Dempsey JA. Effect of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia on quadriceps muscle fatigue in healthy humans. American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 2006;290(2):R365–R75. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00332.2005 16166208

48. Yamaya Y, Bogaard HJ, Wagner PD, Niizeki K, Hopkins SR. Validity of pulse oximetry during maximal exercise in normoxia, hypoxia, and hyperoxia. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2002;92(1):162–8. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00409.2001 11744656.

49. Billaut F, Kerris JP, Rodriguez RF, Martin DT, Gore CJ, Bishop DJ. Interaction of central and peripheral factors during repeated sprints at different levels of arterial O2 saturation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(10):e77297. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077297 24155938; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3796493.

50. Bogdanis GC, Nevill ME, Boobis LH, Lakomy HK. Contribution of phosphocreatine and aerobic metabolism to energy supply during repeated sprint exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1996;80(3):876–84. Epub 1996/03/01. doi: 10.1152/jappl.1996.80.3.876 8964751.

51. Glaister M. Multiple sprint work: physiological responses, mechanisms of fatigue and the influence of aerobic fitness. Sports Medicine. 2005;35(9):757–77. Epub 2005/09/06. doi: 10.2165/00007256-200535090-00003 16138786.

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 9

Nejčtenější v tomto čísle

Tomuto tématu se dále věnují…


Zvyšte si kvalifikaci online z pohodlí domova

Antiseptika a prevence ve stomatologii
nový kurz
Autoři: MUDr. Ladislav Korábek, CSc., MBA

Citikolin v neuroprotekci a neuroregeneraci: od výzkumu do klinické praxe nejen očních lékařů
Autoři: MUDr. Petr Výborný, CSc., FEBO

Zánětlivá bolest zad a axiální spondylartritida – Diagnostika a referenční strategie
Autoři: MUDr. Monika Gregová, Ph.D., MUDr. Kristýna Bubová

Diagnostika a léčba deprese pro ambulantní praxi
Autoři: MUDr. Jan Hubeňák, Ph.D

Význam nemocničního alert systému v době SARS-CoV-2
Autoři: doc. MUDr. Helena Lahoda Brodská, Ph.D., prim. MUDr. Václava Adámková

Všechny kurzy