Maternal serum retinol, 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D concentrations during pregnancy and peak bone mass and trabecular bone score in adult offspring at 26-year follow-up

Autoři: Chandima N. D. Balasuriya aff001;  Tricia L. Larose aff001;  Mats P. Mosti aff001;  Kari Anne I. Evensen aff001;  Geir W. Jacobsen aff005;  Per M. Thorsby aff007;  Astrid Kamilla Stunes aff001;  Unni Syversen aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway aff001;  Department of Endocrinology, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway aff002;  K.G. Jebsen Center for Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway aff003;  St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway aff004;  Department of Public Health and Nursing, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway aff005;  Department of Physiotherapy, Trondheim Municipality, Trondheim, Norway aff006;  Hormone Laboratory, Department of Medical biochemistry, Oslo University Hospital Aker Hospital, Oslo, Norway aff007
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222712



Vitamin A and D deficiency is prevalent in pregnant women worldwide. Both vitamins are involved in fetal skeletal development. A positive association between maternal vitamin D levels and offspring bone mineral density (BMD) at adulthood has been observed. The impact of maternal vitamin A status in pregnancy on offspring peak bone mass remains unclear.

Method and findings

Forty-one mother-child pairs were recruited from a population-based prospective cohort study in Trondheim, Norway, where pregnant women were followed from gestational week 17. Their term-born infants were followed from birth (1986–88). Regression analyses were performed for vitamin A (retinol), 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] in maternal serum (gestational weeks 17, 33, 37) and cord blood. Offspring BMD and spine trabecular bone score (TBS), a measure of bone quality, were analyzed by dual x-ray absorptiometry at 26 years. Average levels during pregnancy of retinol, 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were 1.66 (0.32) μmol/L, 59.0 (20.6) nmol/L, and 251.3 (62.4) pmol/L, respectively. 1,25(OH)2D levels were similar in those with 25(OH)D levels <30 and >75 nmol/L. After adjustment for maternal age, BMI, smoking, and education, and offspring birth weight, maternal serum retinol was positively associated with offspring spine BMD [mean change 30.8 (CI 7.6, 54.0) mg/cm2 per 0.2 μmol/L retinol], and with offspring TBS, although non-significant (p = 0.08). No associations were found between maternal 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D levels and offspring bone parameters. Vitamin levels in cord blood were not associated with offspring BMD or TBS.


This is the first study to show an association between maternal vitamin A status and offspring peak bone mass. Our findings may imply increase future risk for osteoporotic fracture in offspring of mothers with suboptimal vitamin A level. No associations were observed between 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D and offspring BMD.

Klíčová slova:

Birth weight – Bone fracture – Hip – Pregnancy – Vitamin A – Bone development


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