Lipidome profiles of postnatal day 2 vaginal swabs reflect fat composition of gilt’s postnatal diet

Autoři: KaLynn Harlow aff001;  Christina R. Ferreira aff002;  Tiago J. P. Sobreira aff002;  Theresa Casey aff001;  Kara Stewart aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America aff001;  Metabolomics Core, Bindley Science Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215186


We hypothesized that postnatal development of the vagina is impacted by early nutritional environment. Our objective was to determine if lipid profiles of vaginal swabs were different between postnatal gilts suckled by sow or fed milk replacer the first 48 h after birth, with or without a lard-based fat supplement. Gilts (>1.3 kg) were selected at birth across 8 litters and assigned to one of four treatments: 1) suckled by sow (S, n = 8); 2) suckled by sow plus administration of a fat supplement (SF, n = 5); 3) bottle-fed solely milk replacer (B, n = 8); or 4) bottle-fed solely milk replacer plus administration of a fat supplement (BF, n = 7). At 48 h postnatal, vaginal swabs of gilts were taken with a cytology brush, and lipids were extracted for analysis using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-profiling. Lipids extracted from serum collected at 48 h from gilts, milk collected at 24 h from sows, and milk replacer were also analyzed with MRM-profiling. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found 18 lipids recovered from vaginal swabs that highly distinguished between S and B gilts [area-under-the-curve (AUC) > 0.9], including phosphatidylethanolamine with 34 carbons and four unsaturations in the fatty acyl residues [PE (34:4)]. Twelve lipids from vaginal swabs highly correlated (r > 0.6; p < 0.01) with nutrition source. Lipids with greater abundance in milk replacer drove association. For example, mean intensity of PE (34:4) was 149-fold higher in milk replacer than colostrum. Consequently, PE (34:4) was found to have 1.6- and 2.12-fold higher levels in serum and vaginal swab samples (p < 0.001), respectively, of B gilts as compared to S gilts. Findings support that vaginal swabs can be used to noninvasively study effects of perinatal nutrition on tissue composition.

Klíčová slova:

Breast milk – Fats – Lipids – Milk – Swine – Lipid analysis – Lipid profiles


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