Knowledge, attitudes and practices of livestock and aquaculture producers regarding antimicrobial use and resistance in Vietnam

Autoři: Phuc Pham-Duc aff001;  Meghan A. Cook aff001;  Hanh Cong-Hong aff001;  Hang Nguyen-Thuy aff004;  Pawin Padungtod aff004;  Hien Nguyen-Thi aff001;  Sinh Dang-Xuan aff001
Působiště autorů: Center for Public Health and Ecosystem Research, Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam aff001;  Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development, Vietnam Union of Science and Technology Associations, Hanoi, Vietnam aff002;  Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam aff003;  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Country Office for Vietnam, Hanoi, Vietnam aff004;  International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Hanoi, Vietnam aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223115


The use of antibiotics in livestock production is considered a major driver of antibiotic resistance on a global scale. In Vietnam, small- and medium-scale livestock producers dominate the domestic market and regulatory pushes have done little to decrease antibiotic use. In order to inform future policy directions, this study aims to explore knowledge, attitudes, and practices amongst livestock producers to identify their perspectives on antibiotic use and resistance. A total of 392 small- and medium-scale producers specialized in pig, poultry and aquaculture production participated in the study. The results showed that the primary reason for antibiotic use reported by producers was for the treatment of infections (69%). However, prophylactic use was also evident, with farmers reporting other reasons for antibiotic use such as “animals display abnormal symptoms or behaviour” (55%), the “weather is about to change” (25%), or “animals on neighboring farms fall ill” (27%). Only one-fifth of producers demonstrated favorable attitudes towards antibiotic use and preventing antibiotic resistance. Moreover, administering antibiotics remained the preferred countermeasure directly applied by farmers at the first indication of disease (17%), compared to enacting hygiene (10%) or quarantine (5%) measures. The results showed divergent trends amongst producers, with pig producers demonstrating higher levels of knowledge, more favorable attitudes, and higher self-reported utilization of good practice. Better knowledge, attitudes, and practices were also associated with producers who engaged in efforts to explore information on antibiotic use and resistance, which improved incrementally with the number of sources consulted and hours invested. However, there were some areas where increased knowledge or more favorable attitude scores did not translate into better practices. For instance, producers with higher levels of formal education performed significantly better than those with lower education in terms of knowledge and attitude, though both groups reported similar practices. The findings of this study may support future interventions to prevent both antibiotic misuse and the development of antimicrobial resistance.

Klíčová slova:

Antibiotic resistance – Antibiotics – Chickens – Livestock – Schools – Swine – Veterinary diseases – Aquaculture


1. Robinson TP, Wertheim HF, Kakkar M, Kariuki S, Bu D, Price LB. Animal production and antimicrobial resistance in the clinic. Lancet. 2016; 387(10014):e1–3. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00730-8 26603925

2. Baquero F, Martínez J-L, Cantón R. Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in water environments. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2008; 19(3):260–5. doi: 10.1016/j.copbio.2008.05.006 18534838

3. Stokes HW, Gillings MR. Gene flow, mobile genetic elements and the recruitment of antibiotic resistance genes into Gram-negative pathogens. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2011; 35(5):790–819. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2011.00273.x 21517914

4. Thomas PVB, Charles B, Marius G, Bryan TG, Simon AL, Timothy PR, et al. Global trends in antimicrobial use in food animals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2015; 112(18):5649.

5. WHO. Global action plan on antimicrobial resistance. World Health Organization, 2015. Available at 2015. Accessed December 12 2018.

6. Beyene T. Veterinary drug residues in food-animal products: its risk factors and potential effects on public health. J Veterinar Sci Technol. 2016; 7:285. doi: 10.4172/2157-7579.1000285

7. Kim DP, Degand G, Douny C, Pierret G, Delahaut P, Dinh TV, et al. Preliminary evaluation of antimicrobial residue levels in marketed pork and chicken meat in the Red River Delta region of Vietnam. Food and Public Health. 2013; 3(6):267–76.

8. Goff DA, Kullar R, Goldstein EJC, Gilchrist M, Nathwani D, Cheng AC, et al. A global call from five countries to collaborate in antibiotic stewardship: united we succeed, divided we might fail. The Lancet Infec Dis. 2017; 17(2):e56–e63. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(16)30386-3 27866945

9. Nadimpalli M, Delarocque-Astagneau E, Love DC, Price LB, Huynh BT, Collard JM, et al. Combating global antibiotic resistance: emerging One Health concerns in lower- and middle-income countries. Clin Infec Dis. 2018; 66(6):963–9. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix879 29346620

10. Aguirre E. An international model for antibiotics regulation. Food Drug Law J. 2017; 72(2):295–313. 29140661

11. CDDEP. The State of the World's Antibiotics. Washington, D.C: Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy, 2015.

12. World Bank. Vietnam food safety risks management: challenges and opportunities—policy note (English). Washington, D.C.: World Bank Group, 2017

13. Davies PR. One world, one health: the threat of emerging swine diseases. A North American perspective. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2012; 59:18–26. doi: 10.1111/j.1865-1682.2012.01312.x 25471242

14. WHO. Guidelines on use of medically important antimicrobials in food-producing animals. Geneva, Switzerland. 2017. Available at

15. Kim DP, Saegerman C, Douny C, Dinh TV, Xuan BH, Vu BD, et al. First survey on the use of antibiotics in pig and poultry production in the Red River Delta region of Vietnam. Food and Public Health. 2013; 3(5):247–56. doi: 10.5923/j.fph.20130305.03

16. Nguyen KV, Do NTT, Chandna A, Nguyen TV, Van Pham C, Doan PM, et al. Antibiotic Use and Resistance in Emerging Economies: A Situation Analysis for Viet Nam. BMC Public Health. 2013; 13(1):1158. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-1158 24325208

17. Van TT, Chin J, Chapman T, Tran LT, Coloe PJ. Safety of raw meat and shellfish in Vietnam: an analysis of Escherichia coli isolations for antibiotic resistance and virulence genes. Int J Food Microbiol. 2008; 124(3):217–23. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.03.029 18457892

18. Cassou E, Steven MJ, Ru J. The challenge of agricultural pollution: evidence from China, Vietnam, and the Philippines. 2018. World Bank Group. Washington, D.C. Available at doi: 10.1596/978-1-4648-1201-9

19. Tuyet-Hanh TT, Sinh DX, Phuc PD, Ngan TT, Van Tuat C, Grace D, et al. Exposure assessment of chemical hazards in pork meat, liver, and kidney, and health impact implication in Hung Yen and Nghe An provinces, Vietnam. Int J Public Health. 2017; 62(1):75–82. doi: 10.1007/s00038-016-0912-y 27815565

20. National Assembly. Law on Animal Husbandry, 32/2018/QH14 (2018). Available at Accessed March 15 2019.

21. Lapar M, Tiongco M. Private standards in pork value chains: Role, impact and potential for local innovation to improve food safety and enhance smallholder competitiveness. Farm Policy J. 2011; 8(3):39–53.

22. MARD. Statistics of Animal Farming (Thong ke chan nuoi) 1.4.2018-Department of Agriculture, Forrestry, and Fisheries Hanoi. Available from: Accessed March 3 2019.

23. Thrusfield M. Veterinary Epidemiology. 3rd Edition ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 2007.

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 9

Nejčtenější v tomto čísle

Tomuto tématu se dále věnují…


Zvyšte si kvalifikaci online z pohodlí domova

Ulcerative colitis_muž_břicho_střeva
Ulcerózní kolitida
nový kurz

Blokátory angiotenzinových receptorů (sartany)
Autoři: MUDr. Jiří Krupička, Ph.D.

Antiseptika a prevence ve stomatologii
Autoři: MUDr. Ladislav Korábek, CSc., MBA

Citikolin v neuroprotekci a neuroregeneraci: od výzkumu do klinické praxe nejen očních lékařů
Autoři: MUDr. Petr Výborný, CSc., FEBO

Zánětlivá bolest zad a axiální spondylartritida – Diagnostika a referenční strategie
Autoři: MUDr. Monika Gregová, Ph.D., MUDr. Kristýna Bubová

Všechny kurzy
Kurzy Doporučená témata