Investigation of a spatial coupling relationship between carbon emission performance and regional urbanization in China

Autoři: Huimin Zhou aff001;  Pei Wang aff002;  Chengxin Wang aff001;  Xiangzheng Deng aff002;  Kai Liu aff001
Působiště autorů: Collaborative Innovation Center of Human-Nature and Green Development in Universities of Shandong, College of Geography and Environment, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong, China aff001;  Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China aff002;  University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China aff003;  Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222534


In light of the problem of environmental pollution caused by fossil fuel combustion, and its association with rapid urbanization, China is grappling with the question of how to reduce carbon emissions through more efficient energy consumption while simultaneously advancing its economic development. We applied a directional distance function to estimate the carbon emission performance of 30 provinces in China during the period 2000–2016. We selected an index system to assess urbanization processes in these provinces and conducted a spatial analysis to investigate the relationship between urbanization and carbon emission performance. We obtained the following results. First, the carbon emission performance of the eastern region, valued at 0.853, was relatively higher than the corresponding values of 0.810, 0.804, and 0.843 in the central, western, and northeastern regions, respectively. However, during this period, disparities among provinces increased. Second, the average urbanization value for each province showed an upward trend during the study period, and urbanization assumed a “striped” spatial agglomeration pattern. A third finding was that carbon emission performance and urbanization demonstrated a relationship of positive spatial dependence. The average value of their coordinated coupling indicated an upward trend, with an annual increase of 0.85%. Last, we found that efforts to reduce carbon emissions that are solely based on carbon emission performance do not yield reliable results. Accordingly, measurements of urbanization values can enable more detailed differentiation. In conclusion, reasonable measures should be implemented to improve carbon emission performance and urbanization that are in alignment with the actual situation within a given region.

Klíčová slova:

Carbon dioxide – China – Spatial autocorrelation – Urban ecology – Urban economics – Urban environments – Spatial analysis – Economic development


1. NASA, Global climate change. Available from:

2. Alley R, Berntsen T, Bindoff NL, Chen ZL, Chidthaisong A, Friedlingstein P, et al. Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Agenda. 2011; 6(7): 333.

3. International Energy Agency, Key world energy statistics. 2016. Available from:!/tellmap/1378539487.

4. Zhang XL, Karplus VJ, Qi TY, Zhang D, He JK. Carbon emissions in China: How far can new efforts bend the curve? Energy Economics. 2016; 54: 388–395.

5. Liu Z, Guan DB, Crawford-Brown D, Zhang Q, He K, Liu J. Energy policy: A low-carbon road map for China. Nature. 2013; 500(7461):143–145. doi: 10.1038/500143a 23925225

6. Boot-Handford ME, Abanades JC, Anthony EJ, Blunt MJ, Brandani S, Mac Dowell N, et al. Carbon capture and storage update. Energy and Environmental Science. 2014; 7(1): 130–189.

7. Wang GF, Deng XZ, Wang JY, Zhang F, Liang SQ. Carbon emission efficiency in China: A spatial panel data analysis. China Economic Review. 2019; 56:101313.

8. Färe R, Grosskopf S, Lovell CAK, Pasurka C. Multilateral productivity comparisons when some outputs are undesirable: a nonparametric approach. The Review of Economics and Statistics. 1989; 71(1): 90–98.

9. Zhang XC, Ma C, Zhan S, Chen W. Evaluation and simulation for ecological risk based on emergy analysis and pressure-state-response model in a coastal city. China Procedia Environmental Sciences. 2012; 13: 21–231.

10. Zhou P, Ang BW, Han JY. Total factor carbon emission performance: a Malmquist index analysis. Energy Economics. 2010; 32(1): 194–201.

11. Zhou ZB, Liu CJ, Zeng XM, Jiang Y, Liu WB. Carbon emission performance evaluation and allocation in Chinese cities. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2018; 172:1254–1272.

12. Bilgili F, Koçak E, Bulut Ü, Kuloğlu A.The impact of urbanization on energy intensity: Panel data evidence considering cross-sectional dependence and heterogeneity. Energy. 2017; 133: 242–256.

13. Xu X, Tan Y, Chen S, Yang G, Su W. Urban Household Carbon Emission and Contributing Factors in the Yangtze River Delta, China. PLOS ONE.2015; 10(4): e0121604. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121604 25884853

14. Liu BQ, Tian C, Li YQ, Song HH, Ma ZX. Research on the effects of urbanization on carbon emissions efficiency of urban agglomerations in China. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2018; 197:1374–1381.

15. Shen LY, Wu Y, Lou YL, Zeng DH, Shuai CY, Song XN. What drives the carbon emission in the Chinese cities? A case of pilot low carbon city of Beijing. Journal of Cleaner Production.2018; 174: 343–354.

16. Hao Y, Peng H. On the convergence in China’s provincial per capita energy consumption: new evidence from a spatial econometric analysis. Energy Economics. 2017; 68 (9):31–43.

17. Zhou CS, Wang SJ, Wang JY. Examining the influences of urbanization on carbon dioxide emissions in the Yangtze River Delta, China: Kuznets curve relationship. Science of The Total Environment. 2019; 675:472–482. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.269 31030153

18. Wang Z, Cui C, Peng S. How do urbanization and consumption patterns affect carbon emissions in China? A decomposition analysis. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2019; 211:1201–1208.

19. Lin T, Yan J. Investigating the sensitivity factors of household indirect CO2 emission from the production side. Natural Hazards. 2017; 88: 721–74.

20. Wang QW, Zhou P, Shen N, Wang SS. Measuring carbon dioxide emission performance in Chinese provinces: a parametric approach. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2013;21: 324–330.

21. Shephard RW. Theory of cost and production functions. New Jersey: Princeton University Press; 1970.

22. Zhao JC, Ji GX, Tian Y, Chen YL, Wang Z. Environmental vulnerability assessment for mainland China based on entropy method. Ecological Indicators. 2018; 91:410–422.

23. Chuai XW, Huang XJ, Wang WJ, Wen JQ, Chen Q, Peng JW. Spatial econometric analysis of carbon emissions from energy consumption in China. Journal of Geographical Sciences 2012; 22(4):630–642.

24. Yang Y, Hu N. The spatial and temporal evolution of coordinated ecological and socioeconomic development in the provinces along the Silk Road Economic Belt in China. Sustainable Cities and Society. 2019; 47:101466.

25. He JQ, Wang SJ, Liu YY., Ma HT, Liu QQ. Examining the relationship between urbanization and the eco-environment using a coupling analysis: Case study of Shanghai, China. Ecological Indicators. 2017; 77: 185–193.

26. Yang Y, Hu N. The spatial and temporal evolution of coordinated ecological and socioeconomic development in the provinces along the Silk Road Economic Belt in China. Sustainable Cities and Society 2019; 47: 2210–6707.

27. China Economic and Social Development Statistics Database. China Statistical Yearbook. Available from:

28. Choi Y, Yu YN, Lee HS. A Study on the Sustainable Performance of the Steel Industry in Korea Based on SBM-DEA. Sustainability. 2018; 10(1):173.

29. National development and reform commission, 2014. The general office of the national development and reform commission issued a notice on the first batch of GHG emission accounting methods and reporting guidelines for enterprises in 10 industries (trial). Available from:

30. National development and reform commission, 2014. Notice of the general office of the national development and reform commission on printing and distributing the second batch of accounting methods and reporting guidelines for greenhouse gas emissions of four industries (trial). Available from:

31. National development and reform commission, 2016.Notice of the general office of the national development and reform commission on the implementation of the "twelfth five-year plan" on the responsibility assessment of carbon dioxide emission reduction targets per unit of GDP. Available from:

32. China Economic and Social Development Statistics Database. China Energy Statistics Yearbook. Available from:

33. Peng J, Tian L, Liu YX, Zhao MY, Hu YN, Wu JS. Ecosystem services response to urbanization in metropolitan areas: Thresholds identification. Science of The Total Environment. 2017; 607–608:706–714. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.06.218 28711000

34. Yuan YJ, Wu SH, Yu Y, Tong GJ, Mo LJ, Yan DH, et al. Spatiotemporal interaction between ecosystem services and urbanization: Case study of Nanjing City, China. Ecological Indicators. 2018; 95(1):917–929.

35. Auffhammer M, Sun WZ, Wu JF, Zheng SQ. The decomposition and dynamics of industrial carbon dioxide emissions for 287 Chinese cities in 1998–2009. Journal of Economic Surveys. 2016; 30(3):460–481.

36. Yao XL, Kou D, Shao S, Li XY, Wang WX, Zhang CT. Can urbanization process and carbon emission abatement be harmonious? New evidence from China. Environmental Impact Assessment Review. 2018; 71: 70–83.

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 9

Nejčtenější v tomto čísle

Tomuto tématu se dále věnují…


Zvyšte si kvalifikaci online z pohodlí domova

Zánětlivá bolest zad a axiální spondylartritida – Diagnostika a referenční strategie
nový kurz
Autoři: MUDr. Monika Gregová, Ph.D., MUDr. Kristýna Bubová

Inhibitory karboanhydrázy v léčbě glaukomu
Autoři: as. MUDr. Petr Výborný, CSc., FEBO

Příběh jedlé sody
Autoři: MUDr. Ladislav Korábek, CSc., MBA

Krvácení v důsledku portální hypertenze při jaterní cirhóze – od pohledu záchranné služby až po závěrečný hepato-gastroenterologický pohled
Autoři: PhDr. Petr Jaššo, MBA, MUDr. Hynek Fiala, Ph.D., prof. MUDr. Radan Brůha, CSc., MUDr. Tomáš Fejfar, Ph.D., MUDr. David Astapenko, Ph.D., prof. MUDr. Vladimír Černý, Ph.D.

Rozšíření možností lokální terapie atopické dermatitidy v ordinaci praktického lékaře či alergologa
Autoři: MUDr. Nina Benáková, Ph.D.

Všechny kurzy
Kurzy Doporučená témata Časopisy
Zapomenuté heslo

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte se

Zapomenuté heslo

Zadejte e-mailovou adresu se kterou jste vytvářel(a) účet, budou Vám na ni zaslány informace k nastavení nového hesla.


Nemáte účet?  Registrujte se