Growth response of the ichthyotoxic haptophyte, Prymnesium parvum Carter, to changes in sulfate and fluoride concentrations

Autoři: Rakib H. Rashel aff001;  Reynaldo Patiño aff002
Působiště autorů: Department of Biological Sciences and Texas Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, United States of America aff001;  U.S. Geological Survey, Texas Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and Departments of Natural Resources Management and Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, United States of America aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223266


Golden alga Prymnesium parvum Carter is a euryhaline, ichthyotoxic haptophyte (Chromista). Because of its presumed coastal/marine origin where SO42- levels are high, the relatively high SO42- concentration of its brackish inland habitats, and the sensitivity of marine chromists to sulfur deficiency, this study examined whether golden alga growth is sensitive to SO42- concentration. Fluoride is a ubiquitous ion that has been reported at higher levels in golden alga habitat; thus, the influence of F- on growth also was examined. In low-salinity (5 psu) artificial seawater medium, overall growth was SO42—dependent up to 1000 mg l-1 using MgSO4 or Na2SO4 as source; the influence on growth rate, however, was more evident with MgSO4. Transfer from 5 to 30 psu inhibited growth when salinity was raised with NaCl but in the presence of seawater levels of SO42-, these effects were fully reversed with MgSO4 as source and only partially reversed with Na2SO4. Growth inhibition was not observed after acute transfer to 30 psu in a commercial sea salt mixture. In 5-psu medium, F- inhibited growth at all concentrations tested. These observations support the hypothesis that spatial differences in SO42- –but not F-–concentration help drive the inland distribution and growth of golden alga and also provide physiological relevance to reports of relatively high Mg2+ concentrations in golden alga habitat. At high salinity, however, the ability of sulfate to maintain growth under osmotic stress was weak and overshadowed by the importance of Mg2+. A mechanistic understanding of growth responses of golden alga to SO42-, Mg2+ and other ions at environmentally relevant levels and under different salinity scenarios will be necessary to clarify their ecophysiological and evolutionary relevance.

Klíčová slova:

Algae – Fluorides – Fresh water – Osmotic shock – Salinity – Sea water – Sulfates – Surface water


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