Effect of poor glycaemic control on plasma levels and activity of protein C, protein S, and antithrombin III in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Autoři: Otchere Addai-Mensah aff001;  Max Efui Annani-Akollor aff002;  Frederick Obeng Nsafoah aff001;  Linda Ahenkorah Fondjo aff002;  Eddie-Williams Owiredu aff002;  Kwabena Owusu Danquah aff001;  Richard Vikpebah Duneeh aff003;  Francis Agyei Amponsah aff004
Působiště autorů: Department of Medical Diagnostics, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana aff001;  Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana aff002;  Department of Haematology, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana aff003;  St. John of God Hospital, Duayaw Nkwanta, Sunyani, Ghana aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223171



Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients are predisposed to several diabetes-related complications. Dysregulation of the haemostatic mechanisms have been implicated. There are however no current studies assessing the levels and activity of protein C (PC), protein S (PS), and antithrombin III (AT III), which are essential in haemostatic regulation, in a single cohort of T2DM patients. This study evaluated the effect of poorly-managed T2DM on the levels and activity of PC, PS, and AT III.


This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Diabetes Clinic, Cocoa Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. A total of 242 T2DM patients, comprising 152 patients with poorly-managed diabetes and 90 well-managed diabetes patients, were recruited for the study. Fasting blood glucose, liver function tests and lipid profile were performed for each respondent. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was estimated by turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay. The levels and activity of PC, PS and AT III were measured by solid phase sandwich ELISA method.


There was a negative correlation between HbA1c and the levels and activity of PC, PS and AT III. The levels and activity of PC [(5.78 vs 4.64 μg/ml, p<0.0001) and (42.22 vs 36.21 U/ml, p = 0.01) respectively], PS [(22.55 vs 20.29 μg/ml, p = 0.010) and (235.94 vs 211.67 U/ml, p<0.0001) respectively] and AT III [(16.28 vs 14.41μg/ml, p<0.0001) and (176.01 vs 160.09 U/ml, p = 0.03) respectively] were significantly increased in patients with well-managed T2DM compared to the poorly-managed diabetes patients. Likewise, the levels and activity of PC, PS, and AT III was higher among T2DM patients using statins than patients who were statin-naïve. Among patients with well-managed T2DM, those who were on statins had significantly higher levels and activities of PC, PS, and AT III compared to well-managed T2DM patients not on statins. However, there no statistically significant differences between the level and activity of PC, PS, and AT III among poorly-managed T2DM patients with respect to statin status.


Poorly-managed type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with reduced levels and activity of PC, PS and AT III compared to well-managed T2DM. Though use of statins may improve the levels and activity of the PC, PS and AT III in T2DM, their effect is limited in the presence of poorly-controlled T2DM. Proper management of diabetes is essential to reduce the likelihood of thrombotic events among T2DM patients.

Klíčová slova:

Blood plasma – Blood pressure – Blood sugar – Cholesterol – Statins


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