Disability and its association with sociodemographic factors among elderly persons residing in an urban resettlement colony, New Delhi, India

Autoři: Anil Kumar Goswami aff001;  Ramadass S. aff001;  Mani Kalaivani aff002;  Baridalyne Nongkynrih aff001;  Shashi Kant aff001;  Sanjeev Kumar Gupta aff001
Působiště autorů: Centre for Community Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India aff001;  Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222992


Disability prevents an individual from performing to the fullest potential. It is multidimensional. Disability may be physical, mental, social, personal, and environmental or a combination of these. The elderly experience an increased burden of disability, especially in areas where there are limited resources and rapid urbanization. Comparison of reported disability is difficult because several definitions and scales are in use. We used the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule version 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) to study the prevalence of disability, and its association with sociodemographic factors among elderly persons residing in an urban resettlement colony, New Delhi, India. The WHODAS 2.0 provides continuous summary scores, where higher scores indicate higher disability, and vice versa. Elderly persons aged 60 years and above were selected by simple random sampling in this community-based cross-sectional study. Trained interviewers administered the semi-structured interview schedule and WHODAS 2.0. The prevalence of disability was 7.4% (5.8% - 9.3%) among the 931 participants. The prevalence was higher among females than males. Female sex, elderly aged 70 years and above, and those who were illiterate had increased risk of higher disability scores. Participants who were in government or private service had 50% decreased risk of having higher disability scores. The burden of disability was high among elderly persons residing in this resettlement colony. Community-based holistic interventions are required to mitigate the disability, and to improve the functioning of elderly persons.

Klíčová slova:

Census – Elderly – Geriatrics – Global health – Human families – Children – India – Literacy


1. World Health Organization. International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF). Geneva, Switzerland. World Health Organization, 2001.

2. Leonardi M, Bickenbach J, Ustun TB, Kostanjsek N, Chatterji S. The definition of disability: what is in a name? The Lancet. 2006 Oct 7;368(9543):1219–21.

3. Situational Analysis of Elderly in India. Central Statistics Office Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation Government of India, [Internet] 2011. [cited 2018 Dec 2] Available from: http://mospi.nic.in/mospi_new/upload/elderly_in_india.pdf

4. Ingle GK, Nath A. Geriatric Health in India: Concerns and Solutions. Indian J Community Med Off Publ Indian Assoc Prev Soc Med. 2008 Oct;33(4):214–8.

5. National Sample Survey Organisation. Disabled Persons in India. Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation; 2003.

6. Saikia N, Bora JK, Jasilionis D, Shkolnikov VM. Disability Divides in India: Evidence from the 2011 Census. PLoS ONE [Internet]. 2016 Aug 4 [cited 2018 Sep 25];11(8). Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4973875/

7. Awasthi A, Pandey CM, Dubey M, Rastogi S. Trends, prospects and deprivation index of disability in India: Evidences from census 2001 and 2011. Disabil Health J. 2017;10(2):247–56. doi: 10.1016/j.dhjo.2016.10.011 27876288

8. Velayutham B, Kangusamy B, Joshua V, Mehendale S. The prevalence of disability in elderly in India—Analysis of 2011 census data. Disabil Health J. 2016;9(4):584–92. doi: 10.1016/j.dhjo.2016.04.003 27174073

9. Ramadass S, Rai S, Gupta S, Kant S, Wadhwa S, Sood M, et al. Prevalence of disability and its association with sociodemographic factors and quality of life in India: A systematic review. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2018 Dec 1;7(6):1177–84.

10. Washington Group on Disability Statistics [Internet]. Washington Group on disability statistics. [cited 2019 Mar 29]. Available from: http://www.washingtongroup-disability.com/

11. Chakrabarty D, Mandal PK, Manna N, Mallik S, Ghosh P, Chatterjee C, et al. Functional disability and associated chronic conditions among geriatric populations in a rural community of India. Ghana Med J [Internet]. 2010 Jan 1 [cited 2018 Dec 2];44(4). Available from: https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gmj/article/view/68913

12. Paul SS, Abraham VJ. How healthy is our geriatric population? a community-based cross-sectional study. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2015;4(2):221–5.

13. Gupta S, Yadav R, Malhotra A. Assessment of physical disability using Barthel index among elderly of rural areas of district Jhansi (U.P), India. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2016;5(4):853–65.

14. Gupta P, Mani K, Rai S, Nongkynrih B, Gupta S. Functional disability among elderly persons in a rural area of Haryana. Indian J Public Health. 2014;58(1):11–16. doi: 10.4103/0019-557X.128155 24748351

15. Sulania A, Khandekar J, Nagesh S. Burden and correlates of disability and functional impairment in an urban community. Int J Med Public Health. 2015;5(1):82–90.

16. Singh A, Bairwa M, Goel S, Bypareddy R, Mithra P. Prevalence and Predictors of Unmet Needs among the Elderly Residents of the rural Field Practice Area of a Tertiary Care Centre from Northern India. Malays J Med Sci. 2016;23(5):44–50. doi: 10.21315/mjms2016.23.5.6 27904424

17. Venkatarao T, Ezhil R, Jabbar S, Ramkrishnam R. Prevalence of disability and handicaps in geriatric population in rural south India. Indian J Public Health. 2005;49(1):11–17. 15989154

18. Joshi K, Kumar R, Avasthi A. Morbidity profile and its relationship with disability and psychological distress among elderly people in Northern India. Int J Epidemiol. 2003 Dec;32(6):978–87. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyg204 14681260

19. Madden RH, Dune T, Lukersmith S, Hartley S, Kuipers P, Gargett A, et al. The relevance of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in monitoring and evaluating Community-based Rehabilitation (CBR). Disabil Rehabil. 2014;36(10):826–37. doi: 10.3109/09638288.2013.821182 23944180

20. World Health Organization, World Bank, editors. World report on disability. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2011. 325 p.

21. Álvarezz AS. The application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health in psychiatry: possible reasons for the lack of implementation. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2012 Feb;91(13 Suppl 1):S69–73.

22. Üstün TB, editor. Measuring health and disability: manual for WHO Disability Assessment Schedule WHODAS 2.0. Geneva, Switzerland. World Health Organization; 2010. 90 p.

23. Imam AUK, Banerjee UK. Urbanisation and greening of Indian cities: Problems, practices, and policies. Ambio. 2016 May;45(4):442–57. doi: 10.1007/s13280-015-0763-4 26768899

24. Jain M, Knieling J, Taubenböck H. Urban transformation in the National Capital Territory of Delhi, India: The emergence and growth of slums? Habitat Int. 2015 Aug 1;48:87–96.

25. Yenneti K, Wei YD, Chen W. The urbanization of poverty in India: Spatio-temporal disparities in consumption expenditures. Geogr Rev. 2017;107(2):360–83.

26. Agarwal A, Lubet A, Mitgang E, Mohanty S, Bloom D. Population Aging in India: Facts, Issues, and Options. 2016. PGDA Working Paper No. 132.

27. Checkley W, Ghannem H, Irazola V, Kimaiyo S, Levitt NS, Miranda JJ, et al. Management of Noncommunicable Disease in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Glob Heart. 2014 Dec;9(4):431–43. doi: 10.1016/j.gheart.2014.11.003 25592798

28. Ahamed Golandaj J, Goli S, Chandra Das K. Living arrangements among older population and perceptions on old age assistance among adult population in India. Int J Sociol Soc Policy. 2013 Jun 14;33(5/6):367–79.

29. Samanta T, Chen F, Vanneman R. Living Arrangements and Health of Older Adults in India. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2015 Nov;70(6):937–47. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbu164 25452403

30. Almazán-Isla J, Comín-Comín M, Damián J, Alcalde-Cabero E, Ruiz C, Franco E, et al. Analysis of disability using WHODAS 2.0 among the middle-aged and elderly in Cinco Villas, Spain. Disabil Health J. 2014 Jan;7(1):78–87. doi: 10.1016/j.dhjo.2013.08.004 24411511

31. Sinalkar D, Kunwar R, Kunte R, Balte M. A cross-sectional study of gender differentials in disability assessed on World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 among rural elderly of Maharashtra. Med J Dr Patil Univ. 2015;8(5):594–601

32. Virués-Ortega J, de Pedro-Cuesta J, Seijo-Martínez M, Saz P, Sánchez-Sánchez F, Rojo-Pérez F, et al. Prevalence of disability in a composite≥ 75 year-old population in Spain: a screening survey based on the International Classification of Functioning. BMC Public Health. 2011;11(1):1–9.

33. Forjaz MJ, Rodriguez-Blazquez C, Ayala A, Rodriguez-Rodriguez V, de Pedro-Cuesta J, Garcia-Gutierrez S, et al. Chronic conditions, disability, and quality of life in older adults with multimorbidity in Spain. Eur J Intern Med. 2015 Apr;26(3):176–81. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2015.02.016 25724771

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 9

Nejčtenější v tomto čísle

Tomuto tématu se dále věnují…

Kurzy Doporučená témata