Developing cookies formulated with goat cream enriched with conjugated linoleic acid

Autoři: Ana C. S. Costa aff001;  Diego E. Pereira aff001;  Caio M. Veríssimo aff001;  Marcos A. D. Bomfim aff003;  Rita C. R. E. Queiroga aff001;  Marta S. Madruga aff001;  Susana Alves aff005;  Rui J. B. Bessa aff005;  Maria E. G. Oliveira aff001;  Juliana K. B. Soares aff001
Působiště autorů: Food Science and Technology Program, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil aff001;  Department of Rural Technology, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil aff002;  Embrapa - Goats and Sheep, Sobral, Brazil aff003;  Bromatology Laboratory, Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil aff004;  Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Animal Health (CIISA), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal aff005;  Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Campina Grande, Cuité, Brazil aff006
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0212534


Goat fat is one of the best sources of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid which has health benefits. However, though CLA is generated in ruminants, CLA consumption is limited to meats and milk products. This study aimed to replace vegetable fat with goat milk fat enriched with CLA. From differing fat sources, four cookie recipes were developed: CVF–vegetable fat cookies; CB–butter cookies; CG–goat milk fat cookies without CLA; CGCLA–goat milk fat cookies with CLA. The cookies were evaluated using physical (color and texture), physical-chemical parameters (lipids, proteins, total sugars, fiber, ash, moisture and Aw), consumer testing (n = 123), and lipid profiles. The CGCLA presented higher values in the color parameters. The highest and the lowest scores obtained for hardness were respectively 5.54 (CB) and 2.21 (CVF). Lipids and total sugars varied inversely; the highest percentages of lipids were in the CVF and CG samples which obtained lower total sugar content. There were no differences in acceptance or preference for the four formulations. The goat cream formulations (CG and CGCLA) were as well accepted as the CFV formulation. For lipid profiles, CFV presented the highest percentage of trans-fatty acids (TFA) at 16.76%. CGCLA presented 70% more CLA than either CB or CG, certifying that CGCLA presents CLA in relevant quantities, even after cooking. The CGCLA presented higher levels of CLA, and in this study it was verified that goat milk cream enriched with CLA can be used in producing cookies, adding functional and nutritional properties, and offering another alternative(s) to produce food from goat milk fat.

Klíčová slova:

Fats – Fatty acids – Goats – Lipids – Milk – principal component analysis – Statistical data – Vegetables


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