Correlates of prenatal and postnatal mother-to-infant bonding quality: A systematic review

Autoři: Elke Tichelman aff001;  Myrte Westerneng aff001;  Anke B. Witteveen aff001;  Anneloes L. van Baar aff003;  Henriëtte E. van der Horst aff004;  Ank de Jonge aff001;  Marjolein Y. Berger aff002;  François G. Schellevis aff004;  Huibert Burger aff002;  Lilian L. Peters aff001
Působiště autorů: Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Midwifery Science, AVAG, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands aff001;  University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of General Practice & Elderly Care Medicine, Groningen, the Netherlands aff002;  Child and Adolescent Studies, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands aff003;  Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of General Practice & Elderly Care Medicine, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands aff004;  NIVEL, Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222998



Mother-to-infant bonding is defined as the emotional tie experienced by a mother towards her child, which is considered to be important for the socio-emotional development of the child. Numerous studies on the correlates of both prenatal and postnatal mother-to-infant bonding quality have been published over the last decades. An up-to-date systematic review of these correlates is lacking, however.


To systematically review correlates of prenatal and postnatal mother-to-infant bonding quality in the general population, in order to enable targeted interventions.


MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsychINFO were searched through May 2018. Reference checks were performed. Case-control, cross-sectional or longitudinal cohort studies written in English, German, Swedish, Spanish, Norwegian, French or Dutch defining mother-to-infant bonding quality as stipulated in the protocol (PROSPERO CRD42016040183) were included. Two investigators independently reviewed abstracts, full-text articles and extracted data. Methodological quality was assessed using the National Institute of Health Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-sectional studies and was rated accordingly as poor, fair or good. Clinical and methodological heterogeneity were examined.

Main results

131 studies were included. Quality was fair for 20 studies, and poor for 111 studies. Among 123 correlates identified, 3 were consistently associated with mother-to-infant bonding quality: 1) duration of gestation at assessment was positively associated with prenatal bonding quality, 2) depressive symptoms were negatively associated with postnatal mother-to-infant bonding quality, and 3) mother-to-infant bonding quality earlier in pregnancy or postpartum was positively associated with mother-to-infant bonding quality later in time.


Our review suggests that professionals involved in maternal health care should consider monitoring mother-to-infant bonding already during pregnancy. Future research should evaluate whether interventions aimed at depressive symptoms help to promote mother-to-infant bonding quality. More high-quality research on correlates for which inconsistent results were found is needed.

Klíčová slova:

Cross-sectional studies – Depression – Educational attainment – Emotions – Maternal health – Mothers – Pregnancy – Systematic reviews


1. Kinsey CB, Hupcey JE. State of the science of maternal–infant bonding: A principle-based concept analysis. Midwifery. 2013; 29: 1314–1320. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2012.12.019 23452661

2. Kinsey CB, Baptiste-Roberts K, Zhu J, Kjerulff KH. Birth-related, psychosocial, and emotional correlates of positive maternal–infant bonding in a cohort of first-time mothers. Midwifery. 2014; 30: e188–194. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2014.02.006 24650812

3. Benoit D. Infant-parent attachment: Definition, types, antecedents, measurement and outcome. Paediatr Child Health. 2004; 9: 541–545. doi: 10.1093/pch/9.8.541 19680481

4. Klaus MH, Kennell JH, Klaus PH. Bonding: Building the foundations of secure attachment and independence. Cambridge: Da Capo Press; 1996.

5. de Cock ESA, Henrichs J, Vreeswijk CMJM, Maas AJ, Rijk CHAM, van Bakel HJA. Continuous feelings of love? The parental bond from pregnancy to toddlerhood. J Fam Psychol. 2016; 30: 125–134. doi: 10.1037/fam0000138 26280095

6. Mason ZS, Briggs RD, Silver EJ. Maternal attachment feelings mediate between maternal reports of depression, infant social–emotional development, and parenting stress. J Reprod Infant Psychol. 2011; 29: 382–394.

7. Siddiqui A, Hägglöf B. Does maternal prenatal attachment predict postnatal mother–infant interaction? Early Hum Dev. 2000; 59: 13–25. doi: 10.1016/s0378-3782(00)00076-1 10962164

8. Fuller JR. Early patterns of maternal attachment. Health Care Women Int. Health Care Women Int. 1990; 11: 433–446. doi: 10.1080/07399339009515913 2228815

9. Barrett J, Wonch KE, Gonzalez A, Ali N, Steiner M, Hall GB, et al. Maternal affect and quality of parenting experiences are related to amygdala response to infant faces. Soc Neurosci. 2012; 7: 252–268. doi: 10.1080/17470919.2011.609907 21943083

10. Dudek J, Colasante T, Zuffianò A, Haley DW. Changes in Cortical Sensitivity to Infant Facial Cues From Pregnancy to Motherhood Predict Mother–Infant Bonding. Child Dev. 2018; 0: 1–20.

11. Rodrigo MJ, León I, Quiñones I, Lage A, Byrne S, Bobes MA. Brain and personality bases of insensitivity to infant cues in neglectful mothers: An event-related potential study. Dev Psychopathol. 2011; 23: 163–176. doi: 10.1017/S0954579410000714 21262046

12. McElwain NL, Booth-LaForce C. Maternal sensitivity to infant distress and nondistress as predictors of infant-mother attachment security. J Fam Psychol. 2006; 20: 247–255. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.20.2.247 16756400

13. Schmid B, Blomeyer D, Buchmann AF, Trautmann-Villalba P, Zimmermann US, Schmidt MH, et al. Quality of early mother–child interaction associated with depressive psychopathology in the offspring: A prospective study from infancy to adulthood. J Psychiatr Res. 2011; 45: 1387–1394. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2011.05.010 21683371

14. Martin G, Bergen HA, Roeger L, Allison S. Depression in young adolescents: investigations using 2 and 3 factor versions of the Parental Bonding Instrument. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2004; 192: 650–657. doi: 10.1097/01.nmd.0000142028.10056.c6 15457107

15. Sato T, Sakado K, Uehara T, Narita T, Hirano S, Nishioka K, et al. Dysfunctional parenting as a risk factor to lifetime depression in a sample of employed Japanese adults: evidence for the ‘affectionless control’hypothesis. Psychol Med. 1998; 28: 737–742. doi: 10.1017/s0033291797006430 9626730

16. Oakley-Browne MA, Joyce PR, Wells JE, Bushnell JA, Hornblow AR. Adverse parenting and other childhood experience as risk factors for depression in women aged 18–44 years. J Affect Disord. 1995; 34: 13–23. doi: 10.1016/0165-0327(94)00099-u 7622735

17. Lindgren K. Relationships among maternal–fetal attachment, prenatal depression, and health practices in pregnancy. Res Nurs Health. 2001; 24: 203–217. 11526619

18. Forray A. Substance use during pregnancy. F1000Research. 2016; 5.

19. Cannella BL. Maternal–fetal attachment: an integrative review. J Adv Nurs. 2005; 50: 60–68. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2004.03349.x 15788066

20. Yarcheski A, Mahon NE, Yarcheski TJ, Hanks MM, Cannella BL. A meta-analytic study of predictors of maternal-fetal attachment. Int J Nurs Stud. 2009; 46: 708–715. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.10.013 19081091

21. Laxton-Kane M, Slade P. The role of maternal prenatal attachment in a woman’s experience of pregnancy and implications for the process of care. J Reprod Infant Psychol. 2002; 20: 253–266.

22. Van den Bergh B, Simons A. A review of scales to measure the mother–foetus relationship. J Reprod Infant Psychol. 2009; 27: 114–126.

23. Slagt-Tichelman E, Klijnstra S, Oostenbrink M, de Jonge A, Westerneng M, Peters LL. Optimale moeder-kind binding: een systematische review (Optimal mother-to-infant bonding: a systematic review of prenatal interventions). Tijdschr voor Verlos. 2019; 3: 16–25.

24. Nunnally JC, Bernstein IH. Psychometric Theory (McGraw-Hill Series in Psychology). Vol. 3. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1994.

25. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. National Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross‐Sectional Studies. 2014.

26. Cohen J. A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educ Psychol Meas. 1960; 20: 37–46.

27. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, Group P. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 2009; 6: e1000097. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097 19621072

28. Cranley MS. Development of a tool for the measurement of maternal attachment during pregnancy. Nurs Res. 1981; 30, 281–284. 6912989

29. Brockington IF, Fraser C, Wilson D. The postpartum bonding questionnaire: a validation. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2006; 9: 233–242. doi: 10.1007/s00737-006-0132-1 16673041

30. Deeks JJ, Higgins JPT, Altman DG. Chapter 9: Analysing data and undertaking meta‐analyses. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 (updated March 2011). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011.

31. Steiner B, Butler HD, Ellison JM. Causes and correlates of prison inmate misconduct: A systematic review of the evidence. J Crim Justice. 2014; 42: 462–470.

32. Rowe HJ, Wynter KH, Steele A, Fisher JRW, Quinlivan JA. The growth of maternal-fetal emotional attachment in pregnant adolescents: a prospective cohort study. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2013; 26: 327–333. doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2013.06.009 24075091

33. Cox JL, Holden JM, Sagovsky R. Detection of postnatal depression: development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Br J psychiatry. 1987; 150: 782–786. doi: 10.1192/bjp.150.6.782 3651732

34. Zimet GD, Dahlem NW, Zimet SG, Farley GK. The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. J Pers Assess. 1988; 52: 30–41.

35. Spanier GB. Measuring dyadic adjustment: New scales for assessing the quality of marriage and similar dyads. J Marriage Fam. 1976; 15–28.

36. Parker G, Tupling H, Brown LB. A parental bonding instrument. Br J Med Psychol. 1979; 52: 1–10.

37. Brennan KA, Clark CL, Shaver PR. Self-report measurement of adult attachment: An integrative overview. In Simpson JA & Rholes WS (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 46–76). New York: Guilford Press; 1998.

38. Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene RE. Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists press; 1970.

39. Zigmond AS, Snaith RP. The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1983;67: 361–370. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.1983.tb09716.x 6880820

40. Klaus MH, Kennell JH. Mother-infant bonding. St Louis: Mosby; 1976.

41. Field T. Postpartum depression effects on early interactions, parenting, and safety practices: a review. Infant Behav Dev. 2010; 33: 1–6. doi: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2009.10.005 19962196

42. Committee on Obstetric Practice. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee Opinion no. 630. Screening for perinatal depression. Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 125: 1268–1271. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000465192.34779.dc 25932866

43. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for depression in adults: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2009; 151: 784. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-151-11-200912010-00006 19949144

44. Dennis C-L. Psychosocial and psychological interventions for prevention of postnatal depression: systematic review. Bmj. 2005; 331: 15. doi: 10.1136/bmj.331.7507.15 15994688

45. Evans J, Heron J, Francomb H, Oke S, Golding J. Cohort study of depressed mood during pregnancy and after childbirth. Bmj. 2001; 323: 257–260. doi: 10.1136/bmj.323.7307.257 11485953

46. Limlomwongse N, Liabsuetrakul T. Cohort study of depressive moods in Thai women during late pregnancy and 6–8 weeks of postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Arch Womens Ment Health. 2006; 9: 131–138. doi: 10.1007/s00737-005-0115-7 16329000

47. O caktan E, Çalışkan D, Bedriye Ö, Özdemir O, Kenan K. Antepartum and postpartum depression in a primary health care center area Birsağlık ocağı bölgesinde doğum öncesi ve doğum sonrası depresyonun değerlendirilmesi. Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası. 2006; 59: 151–157.

48. Morrell CJ, Sutcliffe P, Booth A, Stevens J, Scope A, Stevenson M, et al. A systematic review, evidence synthesis and meta-analysis of quantitative and qualitative studies evaluating the clinical effectiveness, the cost-effectiveness, safety and acceptability of interventions to prevent postnatal depression. Health Technol Assess (Rockv). 2016; 20: 1–414.

49. Thoppil J, Riutcel TL, Nalesnik SW. Early intervention for perinatal depression. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005; 192: 1446–1448. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2004.12.073 15902133

50. Hakanen H, Flykt M, Sinervä E, Nolvi S, Kataja E-L, Pelto J, et al. How maternal pre-and postnatal symptoms of depression and anxiety affect early mother-infant interaction? J Affect Disord. 2019; 257: 83–90. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2019.06.048 31299408

51. Parfitt Y, Pike A, Ayers S. The impact of parents’ mental health on parent–baby interaction: A prospective study. Infant Behav Dev. 2013; 36: 599–608. doi: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2013.06.003 23850989

52. Boekhorst MGBM, Beerthuizen A, Endendijk JJ, Van Broekhoven KE, Van Baar A, Bergink V, Pop VJM. Different trajectories of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. J Affect Disord. 2019; 248: 139–146. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2019.01.021 30731281

53. Bowlby J. Attachment and loss: Attachment (vol. 1). New York: Basic Books; 1969.

54. Cunen NB, Jomeen J, Xuereb RB, Poat A. A narrative review of interventions addressing the parental–fetal relationship. Women and Birth. 2017; 30: e141–151. doi: 10.1016/j.wombi.2016.11.005 27884654

55. Mercer RT, Walker LO. A review of nursing interventions to foster becoming a mother. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2006; 35: 568–582. doi: 10.1111/j.1552-6909.2006.00080.x 16958712

56. Altman DG. Practical statistics for medical research. London: Chapman and Hall; 1991.

57. Landis JR, Koch GG. An application of hierarchical kappa-type statistics in the assessment of majority agreement among multiple observers. Biometrics. 1977; 363–374. 884196

58. Olson CM, Rennie D, Cook D, Dickersin K, Flanagin A, Hogan JW, et al. Publication bias in editorial decision making. Jama. 2002; 287: 2825–2828. doi: 10.1001/jama.287.21.2825 12038924

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 9

Nejčtenější v tomto čísle

Tomuto tématu se dále věnují…


Zvyšte si kvalifikaci online z pohodlí domova

Ulcerative colitis_muž_břicho_střeva
Ulcerózní kolitida
nový kurz

Blokátory angiotenzinových receptorů (sartany)
Autoři: MUDr. Jiří Krupička, Ph.D.

Antiseptika a prevence ve stomatologii
Autoři: MUDr. Ladislav Korábek, CSc., MBA

Citikolin v neuroprotekci a neuroregeneraci: od výzkumu do klinické praxe nejen očních lékařů
Autoři: MUDr. Petr Výborný, CSc., FEBO

Zánětlivá bolest zad a axiální spondylartritida – Diagnostika a referenční strategie
Autoři: MUDr. Monika Gregová, Ph.D., MUDr. Kristýna Bubová

Všechny kurzy
Kurzy Doporučená témata