Comprehensive analysis of the internal structure and firmness in American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) fruit

Autoři: Luis Diaz-Garcia aff001;  Lorraine Rodriguez-Bonilla aff001;  Matthew Phillips aff001;  Arnoldo Lopez-Hernandez aff003;  Edward Grygleski aff004;  Amaya Atucha aff001;  Juan Zalapa aff001
Působiště autorů: University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Horticulture, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America aff001;  Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias, Aguascalientes, México aff002;  University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Food Science, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America aff003;  Valley Corporation, Tomah, Wisconsin, United States of America aff004;  USDA-ARS, Vegetable Crops Research Unit, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222451



Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon L.) fruit quality traits encompass many properties. Although visual appearance and fruit nutritional constitution have usually been the most important attributes, cranberry textural properties such as firmness have recently gained importance in the industry. Fruit firmness has become a quality standard due to the recent demand increase for sweetened and dried cranberries (SDC), which are currently the most profitable cranberry product. Traditionally, this trait has been measured by the cranberry industry using compression tests; however, it is poorly understood how fruit firmness is influenced by other characteristics.


In this study, we developed a high-throughput computer-vision method to measure the internal structure of cranberry fruit, which may in turn influence cranberry fruit firmness. We measured the internal structure of 16 cranberry cultivars measured over a 40-day period, representing more than 3000 individual fruit evaluated for 10 different traits. The internal structure data paired with fruit firmness values at each evaluation period allowed us to explore the correlations between firmness and internal morphological characteristics.


Our study highlights the potential use of internal structure and firmness data as a decision-making tool for cranberry processing, especially to determine optimal harvest times and ensure high quality fruit. In particular, this study introduces novel methods to define key parameters of cranberry fruit that have not been characterized in cranberry yet. This project will aid in the future evaluation of cranberry cultivars for in SDC production.

Klíčová slova:

Decision making – Density – Fruits – Fungal structure – principal component analysis – Pericarp – Plant breeding – Fruit crops


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