Antifungal effects of a 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivative determined by cytochemical and vibrational spectroscopic studies


Autoři: Barbara Chudzik aff001;  Katarzyna Bonio aff001;  Wojciech Dabrowski aff002;  Daniel Pietrzak aff002;  Andrzej Niewiadomy aff003;  Alina Olender aff005;  Bożena Pawlikowska-Pawlęga aff006;  Mariusz Gagoś aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Biology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Poland aff001;  Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland aff002;  Institute of Industrial Organic Chemistry, Warsaw, Poland aff003;  Department of Chemistry, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Lublin, Poland aff004;  Chair and Department of Medical Microbiology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland aff005;  Department of Comparative Anatomy and Anthropology, Institute of Biology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Poland aff006
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(9)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222775

Souhrn

Compounds belonging to the group of 5-substituted 4-(1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl) benzene-1,3-diols exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activity, including antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer properties. The mechanism of the antifungal activity of compounds from this group has not been described to date. Among the large group of 5-substituted 4-(1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl) benzene-1,3-diol derivatives, the compound 4-(5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-yl) benzene-1,3-diol, abbreviated as C1, was revealed to be one of the most active agents against pathogenic fungi, simultaneously with the lowest toxicity to human cells. The C1 compound is a potent antifungal agent against different Candida species, including isolates resistant to azoles, and molds, with MIC100 values ranging from 8 to 96 μg/ml. The antifungal activity of the C1 compound involves disruption of the cell wall biogenesis, as evidenced by the inability of cells treated with C1 to maintain their characteristic cell shape, increase in size, form giant cells and flocculate. C1-treated cells were also unable to withstand internal turgor pressure causing protoplast material to leak out, exhibited reduced osmotic resistance and formed buds that were not covered with chitin. Disturbances in the chitin septum in the neck region of budding cells was observed, as well as an uneven distribution of chitin and β(1→3) glucan, and increased sensitivity to substances interacting with wall polymerization. The ATR-FTIR spectral shifts in cell walls extracted from C. albicans cells treated with the C1 compound suggested weakened interactions between the molecules of β(1→3) glucans and β(1→6) glucans, which may be the cause of impaired cell wall integrity. Significant spectral changes in the C1-treated cells were also observed in bands characteristic for chitin. The C1 compound did not affect the ergosterol content in Candida cells. Given the low cytotoxicity of the C1 compound to normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF), it is possible to use this compound as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of surface and gastrointestinal tract mycoses.

Klíčová slova:

Antifungals – Candida – Candida albicans – Cell staining – Cell walls – Fungal pathogens – Chitin – Glucans


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