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Genetic variation in <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> isolates from a London outbreak associated with isoniazid resistance

Genetic variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from a London outbreak associated with isoniazid resistance

Background: The largest outbreak of isoniazid-resistant (INH-R) Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Western Europe is centred in North London, with over 400 cases diagnosed since 1995...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 117/2016

Specialization: Internal medicine Pneumology and ftiseology
Antimicrobial agents – optimising the ecological balance

Antimicrobial agents – optimising the ecological balance

Background: There is no more challenging a group of pharmaceuticals than antimicrobials. With the antibiotic era came great optimism as countless deaths were prevented from what...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 114/2016

Specialization: Hygiene and epidemiology Health Care
The global threat of Zika virus to pregnancy: epidemiology, clinical perspectives, mechanisms, and impact

The global threat of Zika virus to pregnancy: epidemiology, clinical perspectives, mechanisms, and impact

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has newly emerged as a significant global threat, especially to pregnancy. Recent major outbreaks in the Pacific and in...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 112/2016

Specialization: Paediatric neurology Medical virology Neonatology Neurology
Frugal innovation in medicine for low resource settings

Frugal innovation in medicine for low resource settings

Whilst it is clear that technology is crucial to advance healthcare: innovation in medicine is not just about high-tech tools, new procedures or genome discoveries. In...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 102/2016

No effects of oral vitamin D supplementation on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

No effects of oral vitamin D supplementation on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common hepatic disorder worldwide, reaching prevalence up to 90 % in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 92/2016

Beyond viral suppression of HIV – the new quality of life frontier

Beyond viral suppression of HIV – the new quality of life frontier

Background: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016–2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 94/2016

How important is gametocyte clearance after malaria therapy?

How important is gametocyte clearance after malaria therapy?

There has been increasing interest in the role of malaria drugs in preventing malaria transmission from humans to mosquitoes, which would help augment malaria control and...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 93/2016

Antibiotic use during pregnancy: how bad is it?

Antibiotic use during pregnancy: how bad is it?

Background: Our microbial companions (the “microbiota”) are extremely important for the preservation of human health. Although changes in bacterial communities (dysbiosis...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 91/2016

Potential of immunomodulatory agents as adjunct host-directed therapies for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

Potential of immunomodulatory agents as adjunct host-directed therapies for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is extremely challenging due to the virulence of the etiologic strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), the aberrant...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 89/2016

The gut microbiome in human immunodeficiency virus infection

The gut microbiome in human immunodeficiency virus infection

HIV/AIDS causes severe dysfunction of the immune system through CD4+ T cell depletion, leading to dysregulation of both the adaptive and innate immune arms. A primary target for...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 83/2016

Benefits of the Mediterranean diet beyond the Mediterranean Sea and beyond food patterns

Benefits of the Mediterranean diet beyond the Mediterranean Sea and beyond food patterns

Abundant and growing evidence has accrued to demonstrate that the traditional Mediterranean diet is likely to be the ideal dietary pattern for the prevention of cardiovascular...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 157/2016

Ethical issues in microbiome research and medicine

Ethical issues in microbiome research and medicine

The human microbiome is the collection of bacteria, viruses, and fungi that live on and in the human organism’s skin, mucosa, and intestinal tract. Re-examining commonly...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 156/2016

Medicine shortages: a commentary on causes and mitigation strategies

Medicine shortages: a commentary on causes and mitigation strategies

Shortages of medicines and vaccines have been reported in countries of all income levels in recent years. Shortages can result from one or multiple causes, including shortages...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 124/2016

Reporting studies on time to diagnosis: proposal of a guideline by an international panel (REST)

Reporting studies on time to diagnosis: proposal of a guideline by an international panel (REST)

Background: Studies on time to diagnosis are an increasing field of clinical research that may help to plan corrective actions and identify inequities in access to healthcare...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 146/2016

Probiotics and microbiota composition

Probiotics and microbiota composition

Accumulated evidence, corroborated by a new systematic review by Kristensen et al. (Genome Med 8:52, 2016), suggests that probiotics do not significantly impact the fecal...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 82/2016

The importance of collecting structured clinical information on multiple sclerosis

The importance of collecting structured clinical information on multiple sclerosis

Background: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the ‘gold standard’ in the generation of drug efficacy and safety evidence. However, enrolment criteria, timelines and...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 81/2016

Flexible, dual-form nicotine replacement therapy or varenicline in comparison with nicotine patch for smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial

Flexible, dual-form nicotine replacement therapy or varenicline in comparison with nicotine patch for smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial

Background: Extended use of combined pharmacotherapies to treat tobacco dependence may increase smoking abstinence; few studies have examined their effectiveness. The objective...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 80/2016

Contact heat sensitivity and reports of unpleasantness in communicative people with mild to moderate cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease: a cross-sectional study

Contact heat sensitivity and reports of unpleasantness in communicative people with mild to moderate cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease: a cross-sectional study

Background: Compared to healthy controls, people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have been shown to receive less pain medication and report pain less frequently. It is unknown...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 74/2016

Antibiotics, obesity and the link to microbes - what are we doing to our children?

Antibiotics, obesity and the link to microbes - what are we doing to our children?

Background: Childhood obesity and overweight are among the greatest health challenges in the pediatric population. Obese individuals exhibit marked differences in the...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 57/2016

Incorporation of tissue-based genomic biomarkers into localized prostate cancer clinics

Incorporation of tissue-based genomic biomarkers into localized prostate cancer clinics

Localized prostate cancer (PCa) is a clinically heterogeneous disease, which presents with variability in patient outcomes within the same risk stratification (low, intermediate...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 67/2016

Rationing tests for drug-resistant tuberculosis – who are we prepared to miss?

Rationing tests for drug-resistant tuberculosis – who are we prepared to miss?

Background: Early identification of patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) increases the likelihood of treatment success and interrupts transmission. Resource...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 30/2016

HbA<sub>1c</sub> levels in non-diabetic older adults – No J-shaped associations with primary cardiovascular events, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality after adjustment for confounders in a meta-analysis of individual participant data from six cohort studies

HbA1c levels in non-diabetic older adults – No J-shaped associations with primary cardiovascular events, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality after adjustment for confounders in a meta-analysis of individual participant data from six cohort studies

Background: To determine the shape of the associations of HbA1c with mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in non-diabetic individuals and explore potential explanations.Methods...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 26/2016

Fatigue is associated with excess mortality in the general population: results from the EPIC-Norfolk study

Fatigue is associated with excess mortality in the general population: results from the EPIC-Norfolk study

Background: Significant fatigue is a frequent reason for seeking medical advice in the general population. Patients, however, commonly feel their complaint is ignored. This...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 122/2016

Evaluation in alcohol use disorders – insights from the nalmefene experience

Evaluation in alcohol use disorders – insights from the nalmefene experience

Nalmefene was the first treatment approved by the European Medicines Agency for reducing alcohol consumption in adult patients with alcohol dependence. It is often presented as...

Full article   BMC Medicine Issue: 119/2016